Chapter 71 to 137

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MARKANDEYA said: – “The Savurni (son of the sun) was said to have been the eighth Manu. Hear! I will copiously relate his birth. Manus, possessors of great shares, were the founders of Manwantaras, by the favour of Mahamaya, among them was Savurni. In the Manwantara of Swaro-chisha in former times Suradha, who was born of the race of Chytra, became a monarch of the whole earth. He ruled this subjects paternally; the kings who were hunters of wild boars then became hostile to him. A valiant and mighty king, among the hunters of wild boars, conquered him in battle, and reduced his power. Thence the holder of extensive portions returned to his city, and ruled over only his own tract of country; that king then became encompassed by the greatest enemies. The counsellors and evil disposed possessed the wealth of the humble king, who lost all the treasures in his city. He lost his royalty. Under the pretext of hunting, he retired to a dreary forest alone, mounted on his horse. He saw the hermitage of an excellent Dwija, thronged around with wild beasts and adorned by the presence of his disciples and sages. He lived there some time, revered by the Muni, and wandered about here and there. He ruminated there on the love that agitated his mind thus; what my predecessors ruled, I afterwards lost. I wonder whether my subjects

are governed with equity or not, I know not the fate of my counsellors, and my trained elephant Surahusti. They are now in the possession of my enemies; what pleasure can they now enjoy, who were formerly pampered with food and riches. Now they are certainly maltreated by the foreign kings; lavished on vain purposes is the treasure that was assumed. The king was sorrowful that his treasury was expended. On these and other things he was perpetually meditating. He saw a Vysa near the cell of a Vipra, “O who art thou” said he “what is the cause of thy coming here?” Why dost thou appear pensive and melancholy, O wealthy man? Why are your eyes red with sorrow? Markandeya said, “hearing the humble speech of the king, the Vysa obsequiously replied to him.” My name is Samadhi, a Vysa. I am born of a wealthy tribe, I am banished through my sons and wife’s covetousness, and wickedness. My sons are possessed of my fortune, and I have become destitute of wealth, a consort, and children; in sorrow I took refuge in the forest, leaving behind me my friends and relations. I live here unacquainted with the happiness or misery of my sons, the welfare of my people, or wife. Whether their house is in safety or danger, at present? How my sons are, whether they are engaged in moral or evil deeds? The Rajah asked, “why do you love those sons and that wife, through whose avarice you are banished?” The Vysa replied, “knowing my sentiments, why do you interrogate me, I cannot harden my heart, what can I do.” Covetousness has extinguished their filial affection, yet I feel for my people. O mighty wise man, I am simple, for my heart is attached to my treacherous kinsmen though I know them. How can I hate them, or bear malice in my heart. Markandeya said, “the Vysa by name Samadhi, and the noble king went to the Muni.” They were duly respected by him as prescribed in the ordinances: they both conversed on history. The Rajah said, “O divine personage! I am desirous to ask one thing from thee, explain it to me, my mind has lost its function, I am troubled with anxiety? O excellent Muni! what is this? though conscious of transitoriness, yet like an ignorant person I love my kingdom, and all my retinue.1 He was banished by his son, wife, attendants, and his relations, yet he feels pity for them. In this manner we both excessively grieve, love draws us unto reprehensible actions.2 What is this, O magnificient sage, though we are ingenious, yet our affection produces cecity in action. The Rishi said, “O great sharer, wisdom exists in all living creatures that are desirous of life, love predominates in each individually. Some animals are blind in the day, others at night, and others again that appear equally blind both day and night. It is true, that kings appear prudent, but are not really so; all the beasts, birds, animals have knowledge. What knowledge mankind is possessed of, the others are equally endowed with. See the birds being wise, though oppressed with hunger themselves, yet lovingly pick up the crumbs with their beaks and feed their young ones? O chief of kings! do you not see men lovingly support their offspring for the benefit of others.3 By attraction they fall in the vortex of love. By the power of Mahamaya, the world was originally created. Mahamaya seized the lord of the world when at his slumber yoga; the great illusion enveloped Hari, she shackles the world.4 The divine goddess possesses irresistibly the heart of even the wisest, and forcibly leads into great deception. By her the universe consisting of animates and inanimates was created, her blessings procure emancipation.5 The knowledge of her is the means of supreme salvation; she is eternal and links mortality; she is the supreme goddess over all goddesses. The Rajah said, “O divine personage! who is that goddess? O twice-born! whom you mentioned just now, how was she born? what miracles did she do?” What stupendous action did she, whose form is admirable, perform? I am desirous of hearing about those things, O excellent among those who know the almighty, tell me? The Rishi said, “the form of the world is eternal, all things were created by her, I was frequently told her birth.” She is eternal and only took form

1 Though conscious, &c., that is, though I have sufficient knowledge to know the instability of human transactions, yet like an ignorant person I am subservient to the emotions of my soul. 2 Reprehensible action; viz., mundane affections and the neglect of abstracted religious devotion. 3 Of others viz., posterity. 4 Shackles the world, being the great attractive power. 5 Procures emancipation from secular concerns.

for the benefit of the gods.1 When the world was deluged, Vishnu the Divine Superior Lord was reclining on the serpent bed at the end of Kalpa.

Then two horrible Asuras: named Madhu and Kitabha, was born from the wax of Vishnu’s ear and endeavoured to slay Brahma. Prajapati residing in the lotus naval of Vishnu, saw the two wrathful Asuras and the sleeping Janarddana, who was (in Yoganidra), he thus prayed with strict faith to her, who made Hari’s eye to be her abode. O goddess of the universe; mother of the earth! creator of matter and destroyer of it. Goddess of the slumber of Vishnu, who has extreme brilliancy, is surpassing and superior. Brahma continued, “thou art Swaha, thou art Swad’ha, thou art Vash-ut-kara, thou art Sudha, thou art Akchara, thou art eternal, and of three powers; Matra. Ardha-matra, constant, perpetual, thou art she who is moreover inexpressible, thou art Savitri, thou art the light, and a superior matron. Thou art the sustainer of all things, thou hast created all things, thou governest all things,2 thou existest to the end constantly. Thou art the principle of creation, thou art plastic, thou art the preserver, thou art the destroyer in the end, thou pervadest through the universe. Thou art the supreme knowledge, thou art the great illusion, the supreme intellect, the supreme memory, the great love, the ample light, the mighty goddess. Who contemplates all matter by three kind of powers, Kalaratri, Maharatri, and Moharatri, dreadful. Thou art prosperity, thou art the goddess, thou art Hari, thou art the wisdom that creates understanding, thou art modesty, strength, and gratification; thou art mildness and forgiveness. Thou art Khudgini, Sulini, the frightful Gadini, Chakrini, Sankhini, Chapini Bana, Brusundi, Parigha. Thou art placid, the greatest among the meek; beautiful, excellent, supreme among the excellent; thou art the great goddess. Thou existest in all that is little, and all that is great; in gay and sad things, and thou powerful by the acquirement of their strength, who is left to praise thee? Thou makest the world, thou destroyest the world, who can praise thee? Thou possessest the body of Vishnu, and also Maha-Esana, both of whom were made by thee, and who is able to praise thee? He plauds the goddesses’ eminent actions, that she may link the wicked giants Madhu and Kitabha. And that she might awake the supreme lord, who was to slay both the great wicked demons. The Rishi said, the creator thus praised, that the enraged goddess might awake Vishnu to kill Madhu and Kitabha. She liberated Vishnu’s eyes, nose, arms, bosom, and breast, and appeared to Brahma, whose birth is pure. Janarddana was delivered by her; the lord of the earth arose from his serpent bed in the ocean and beheld them. Madhu and Kitabha, ill disposed heroes; warlike, with red vision, endeavoured to extirpate Brahma. Rising afterwards, they both wrestled with the divine Hari for five thousand years. They were intoxicated by the great deception; the elate with pride desired Keshava to mention his wish. Bhagavan replied, “You shall both die by me! what other desire have I, know this is my only wish.” The Rishi said, that they looked at the universe overflowed with water and deemed themselves deceived, they looked at the divine lotus-eyed, and spoke thus – “We are satisfied with the combat and praise thee; O vanquish and conquer us in a spot not moistened by water! The Rishi said to the holder of the Sanka and Chakra, the divine said, I will do so. He then cut off their heads with the Chakra on his thigh. Brahma himself applauded the deed. I will tell thee copiously of the miracles of the goddess, hear them. Thus far extends the first chapter, mentioning the destruction of Madhu and Kitabha.