Markandeya Puranam

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KRAUSTUKI said: – This Manwantara associated with the Swayambhuba Manu which has been described by thee, I desire to hear in detail everything about it, Oh thou possessor of the six miraculous powers or Bhagas, tell me all about it. Tell me the measure of that Manwantara, as also of the gods, and the godly Rishis, and of those that were the lords of earth, and the king of the gods – the Indra – tell me all these exactly as they were. (1-2)

MARKANDEYA said: – The measure of Manwantaras is made by the figure seventy one; hear from me the measure of a Manwantara calculated by human standards. (3) Thirty crores, multiplied twenty thousand times, and sixty seven nijutas (of years) are the measurement of a Manwantara, and not more. (4) Measured according to the standards of the gods it is said to consist of eight-hundred thousand and another fifty-two thousand (years). (5) The first was the Swayambhuba Manwantara, next the Swaruchisha, then Auttama, them Tamasa, then Raibata, then Chakshusha. These six Manus are gone. The present is the Manwantara of the Bibashwata Manu. The coming ones will be the five Sabarni Manwantaras1, the Rauchya, Bhautya. (6-7) I shall tell you in detail who are the gods, at the coming on of each of these Manwantaras and Rishis and Yakshas, and the Indras and the Pitris. (8) Oh Brahmana, the birth and the duration, and the progeny of these Manus, as also they who were their wives, and who also were their high-souled sons, – hear all this from me. (9) Of the Swayambhuba Manu there were ten sons all like himself; by whom this world with all the seven islands and mountains are inhabited. (10) They entered into this world, each one into a separate continent, consisting of oceans and mines. In the Tretayuga, at the time of the first or Swayambhuba Mawantara, was the earth thus occupied by the sons and grandsons of Priyabrata, the son of Swayambhuba Manu. Of the mighty Priyabrata was a daughter born unto Prajabati. (11-12) That girl, endued with the six great virtues of kindness &c., bore two daughters and ten sons to the lord of creatures Kardama, – these two daughters bore princes in their womb. (13) Their ten brothers were mighty personages, even like unto the lord of creatures in prowess. They are Agnidhra, Medhatithi, Bapushman, Jyotishman, Dyutiman, Bhabya, Sabana, – these seven. Priyabrata anointed them in due form as kings of the seven lands. Hear from me also all about these lands. The father made Agnidhra, – king in Jambudwipa. (14-16) By him was Medhatithi made the lord of Plakshadwipa, in Shalmali Bapushmanta, and in Kushabhaya Joytishmanta, in the Kraunchadvipa Dyotimanta, and of Shakahbaya Bhabya was made the lord. While he made his son Sabana the lord of Pushkara. (17-18) The two sons of the lord of Pushkara were Mahabita and Dhataki. Having divided Pushkara into two parts, these two were installed there. (19) Of Bhabya the sons were seven, hear from me of them, by their names. Jalada, and Kumara, and Sukumara, and Baniyaka and Kushottara and Medhabi and Mahadruma, who was the seventh. He (i.e. Bhabya) made countries called after their names. (20-21) Similarly of Dyutiman there were seven sons, hear of them from me. They were Kushala, Manuga, Oshna, Prakara, Arthakaraka Muni, and Dundubhi, who is described as the seventh. And after their own names were countries established similarly in Kraunchadwipa. (22-23) In Kushadwipa also the different kingdoms were marked by the names of the sons of Jyotishman. Hear of their names from me. (24) They are Udbhida, Baishnava,

1 The five Sabarni Manus are Brahma-Sabarni, Dharma-Sabarni, Rudra-Sabarni, Deba-Sabarni, Indra-Sabarni. Some authorities mention another Daksha-Sabarni, and one who is simply Sabarni.

Suratha, Lambana, Dhritimat, Pravakara and Kapila which was the seventh. (25) Of Bapushman, the lord of Shalmaladwipa, there were seven sons, namely Shweta, Harita, Jimuta, Rohita, Baidyuta, Manasa, and similarly Ketuman, who was the seventh. Similarly in Salmaladwipa also were seven kingdoms established whose names were equal to those of these princes. (26-27) Of Medhatithi, the lord of Plakshadwipa, were there also seven sons, according to whose names kingdoms were marked in Plakshadwipa into seven fold. (28) Of these the first is the Shakabhaba continent and next Shishira, then Shukadoya, then Ananda, Shiba, Kshema, and similarly Dhruba. (29) The law, according to the division of the castes, of the five islands commencing with Plakshadwipa and ending with the Shakadwipa, should be known as everlasting, devoid of the injunctions regarding the destruction of creatures; and they are common in these five continents. (30-31) To Agnidhra did his father, O thou twice-born one, give at first Jambudvipa. He had nine sons, all like the lord of creatures. The eldest was called Nabhi, of him the younger was Kimpurusha; the third was Haribarsha, the fourth was Ilabrita, (32-33) the fifth was Ramya, the sixth was called Hiranya; of them the seventh was Kuru and Bhadrashwa is known to have been the eighth, (34) the ninth was Ketumala; by their names were principalities established. Those places names Kimpurusha and others, with the exception of that called Himabhaya gained their objects naturally, and they were full of enjoyments which could be had without any efforts; and in them there were no reverses nor the fear of old-age and death, (35-36) nor unrighteousness were there (in those continents) neither righteousness nor even (the distinctions) between good, middling, and bad; nor were there in them, any of the conditions of the four Yugas, neither the courses of women nor of the seasons. (37) Of Nabhi the son of Agnidhra was born a son, Oh thou twice-born one, by name Rishabha. Of Rishabha was born Bharata, the brave, and the most superior among a hundred (sons). (38) Rishabha having anointed his son as king took to the order of Banaprastha or final renunciation of the household life, and the highsouled one practiced penances, taking shelter in the hermitage of Pulaha. (39) The father gave to Bharata the southern continent of Himabha (another reading – the continent to the south of the Himalayas); and therefore from the name of that highsouled prince is it called Bharatabarsha.

(40) Of Bharata there was a son, Sumati by name, who was a righteous king, and having placed the kingdom upon him, Bharata too went to the forests. (41) By their sons and grandsons, – as also by the (other) sons of Priyabrata, was the world consisting of the seven islands, enjoyed during the time of the Swayambhaba Manu. (42) This creation is called Swayambhuba, – the first Manwantara, as described to you by me, Oh thou superior among twice-born persons what more shall I tell you? (43)